b'THE UNCONTAINEDmajor port.Dynamics operate their own DRI plants,were seen even before the Russia-Ukraine crisis Steel shipments from Mariupol haveand Cleveland-Cliffs and Voestalpinehit, as China ramped up EV and stainless steel represented 25% of Ukraines exports inhave each added HBI production capacityproduction. Nickel contracts on the London Metal recent years, according to S&P Global.in recent years, although, in the case ofExchange jumped over 25% since the Russia-Ukraines Metinvest, a mining and steelVoestalpines HBI plant in Corpus Christi,Ukraine crisis intensified, over fears of supply group, suspended production at two steelmuch of the output is designated for itsdisruptions, and around 12% in February. Prices plants in Mariupol at the wars outset,mill in Austria. Also, as the Argus reportfor palladium, which is used in vehicle catalytic sending steelmakers in the U.S., Turkey,indicates, not all mills are set up toconverters, also jumped as Russian forces invaded Egypt, and the European Union scramblingconsume DRI and HBI in larger volumes.Ukraine. for other sources of raw materials.Other Metals Worries about aluminum supplies from Russia Lower raw materials availability andpropelled prices of that metal by over 23% in higher prices could jeopardize plans toOther metals supply chains areFebruary to record highs. The Russian company produce more steel in the United States.also threatened by the Ukraine conflict.Rusal, the worlds largest aluminum producer outside of Domestic steelmakers were set toTitanium producers are located on bothChina, produced 3.8 million ton of aluminum in 2021, about increase their melting capacity in 2022sides of the Russo-Ukrainian border.6% of world production.by 7%, requiring larger supplies of rawRussias VSMPO-Avisma is the worldsRegardless of the outcome of the Russo-Ukrainian war, materials which may not be forthcoming.largest producer of titanium sponge,the implications for regional metals supply chains will be Russia and Ukraine combined havea product refined from titanium ore,severe. Failing to win a swift victory, thanks to impressive supplied over 60% of pig iron importswhich is used heavily in aerospace andUkrainian resistance and their own incompetence, to U.S. steel producers since 2018.electronics. Airbus and Boeing are bothRussian forces turned to inflicting significant physical and Other potential pig iron sources includereportedly reliant on VSMPO.economic damage to Ukrainian cities and infrastructure Brazil, which made up 20% of importsUkraine was a major supplier towith rocket fire. Regardless of the wars duration, its since 2018, according to Argus Media, aVSMPO of ilmenite, a titanium ore, untilapparent that the western sanctions on Russia will remain provider of commodities data, but BrazilsPresident Volodymyr Zelensky bannedin place for some time.pig iron is higher in phosphorous, makingits export to Russia as its military forcesThat means, according to Descartes Wood, that the it less desirable. The Canadian steelmakermassed along Ukraines border beforecompliance burdens of companies doing business Stelco recently added one-million tons perthe invasion. VSMPO is now reportedlyin that part of the world will only increase. Its fair year of pig iron capacity at its Hamilton,scouring world markets for titaniumto assume, he said, that there will be additional Ontario, mill.scrap.government action, regardless of the outcome of Some U.S. steelmakers couldRussia produces 7% of the globalthe war.also replace pig iron as a raw materialtotal of nickel, and exports high-grade with direct reduced iron (DRI) and hotnickel to Europe and China for use in briquetted iron (HBI). Nucor and Steelelectric vehicles. Tight supplies of nickel 9'